However, by changing the mode of presentation—for example, using a larger font—the effect of the vision impairment is removed, thus providing the student a fairer opportunity to perform.
Appropriate accommodations in the design or administration of a test for students with disabilities may be necessary to improve the validity of the results.
The process of validation involves four stages: (a) defining what students learn, (b) stating the validity argument, (c) making the claim for validity, and (d) gathering evidence to support the argument and claim.
Nevertheless, for some important skills (e.g., reading skills such as phonemic awareness and reading fluency), multiple choice tests are not suitable. The validity argument states that some tests will produce scores that can be interpreted validly as measures of student achievement and used validly in a manner that is stated publicly (Kane, 1992).Table 2 shows examples of student learning objectives for three subjects that reflect knowledge and skills needed by all students to succeed in school.Table 2 For many reasons, the most desirable format for measuring knowledge and skills is multiple choice or selected response (Haladyna, 2004).A basic education typically includes acquiring both knowledge and skills.A convenient way to think about achievement in this context is to imagine a of objectives that students learn to accomplish.